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As HPC Chip Sizes Grow, So Does the Need For 1kW+ Chip Cooling

One trend in the high performance computing (HPC) space that is becoming increasingly clear is that power consumption per chip and per rack unit is not going to stop with the limits of air cooling. As supercomputers and other high performance systems have already hit – and in some cases exceeded these limits – power requirements and power densities have continued to scale up. And based on the news from TSMC's recent annual technology symposium, we should expect to see this trend continue as TSMC lays the groundwork for even denser chip configurations.

The problem at hand is not a new one: transistor power consumption isn't scaling down nearly as quickly as transistor sizes. And as chipmakers are not about to leave performance on the table (and fail to deliver semi-annual increases for their customers), in the HPC space power per transistor is quickly growing. As an additional wrinkle, chiplets are paving the way towards constructing chips with even more silicon than traditional reticle limits, which is good for performance and latency, but even more problematic for cooling.

Enabling this kind of silicon and power growth has been modern technologies like TSMC'a CoWoS and InFO, which allow chipmakers to build integrated multi-chiplet system-in-packages (SiPs) with as much a double the amount of silicon otherwise allowed by TSMC's reticle limits. By 2024, advancements of TSMC's CoWoS packaging technology will enable building even larger multi-chiplet SiPs, with TSMC anticipating stitching together upwards of four reticle-sized chiplets, This will enable tremendous levels of complexity (over 300 billion transistor per SiP is a possibility that TSMC and its partners are looking at) and performance, but naturally at the cost of formidable power consumption and heat generation. 

Already, flagship products like NVIDIA's H100 accelerator module require upwards of 700W of power for peak performance. So the prospect of multiple, GH100-sized chiplets on a single product is raising eyebrows – and power budgets. TSMC envisions that several years down the road there will be multi-chiplet SiPs with a power consumption of around 1000W or even higher, Creating a cooling challenge.

At 700W, H100 already requires liquid cooling; and the story is much the same for the chiplet based Ponte Vecchio from Intel, and AMD's Instinct MI250X. But even traditional liquid cooling has its limits. By the time chips reach a cumulative 1 kW, TSMC envisions that datacenters will need to use immersion liquid cooling systems for such extreme AI and HPC processors. Immersion liquid cooling, in turn, will require rearchitecting datacenters themselves, which will be a major change in design and a major challenge in continuity.

The short-tem challenges aside, once datacenters are setup for immersion liquid cooling, they will be ready for even hotter chips. Liquid immersion cooling has a lot of potential for handling large cooling loads, which is one reason why Intel is investing heavily in this technology in an attempt to make it more mainstream.

In addition to immersion liquid cooling, there is another technology that can be used to cool down ultra-hot chips — on-chip water cooling. Last year TSMC revealed that it had experimented with on-chip water cooling and said that even 2.6 kW SiPs could be cooled down using this technology. But of course, on-chip water cooling is an extremely expensive technology by itself, which will drive costs of those extreme AI and HPC solutions to unprecedented levels.

None the less, while the future isn't set in stone, seemingly it has been cast in silicon. TSMC's chipmaking clients have customers willing to pay a top dollar for those ultra-high-performance solutions (think operators of hyperscale cloud datacenters), even with the high costs and technical complexity that entails. Which to bring things back to where we started, is why TSMC has been developing CoWoS and InFO packaging processes on the first place – because there are customers ready and eager to break the reticle limit via chiplet technology. We're already seeing some of this today with products like Cerebras' massive Wafer Scale Engine processor, and via large chiplets, TSMC is preparing to make smaller (but still reticle-breaking) designs more accessible to their wider customer base.

Such extreme requirements for performance, packaging, and cooling not only push producers of semiconductors, servers, and cooling systems to their limits, but also require modifications of cloud datacenters. If indeed massive SiPs for AI and HPC workloads become widespread, cloud datacenters will be completely different in the coming years.

The Gigabyte UD1000GM PG5 1000W PSU Review: Prelude to ATX 3.0

In today's review, we are taking a look at the first-ever PSU released with the new 12VHPWR connector, the GIGABYTE UD1000GM PG5. Although the unit is not ATX v3.0 compliant, GIGABYTE upgraded one of their currently available platforms to provide for a single 600W video card connector in an effort to entice early adopters.

Best Intel Motherboards: June 2022

Along with Intel's comprehensive selection of 12th Gen Core series processors, there's an equally comprehensive selection of motherboards to go with them. For the entry-level, there's the very affordable and solid bang for buck Core i3-12100 ($130), with the mid-range being dominated by the Core i5 and i7 processors with up to twelve cores (8P/4E). At the top of the stack is the flagship Core i9-12900K and Core i9-12900KS processors with sixteen cores for the most demanding workflows, applications, and games.

Every processor regardless of use case and price point needs an equally capable motherboard to get the most out of the performance. With a wide variety of LGA 1700 motherboards including the premium Z690, more affordable H660, and B660 chipsets, to the more affordable and entry-level H610 models, there is a myriad of options available. We're taking a look at what's currently available on the market for Intel's 12th Gen Core series processors ranging from 'money no object', all the way down to what's hot in terms of value in our latest motherboard buyer's guide for June 2022.

AMD Updates Ryzen Embedded Series, R2000 Series With up to Four Cores and Eight Threads

One area of AMD's portfolio that perhaps doesn't garner the same levels of attention as its desktop, mobile, and server products is its embedded business. In early 2020, AMD unveiled its Ryzen Embedded R1000 platform for the commercial and industrial sectors and the ever-growing IoT market, with low-powered processors designed for low-profile systems to satisfy the mid-range of the market.

At Embedded World 2022 in Nuremberg, Germany, AMD has announced its next-generation of Ryzen Embedded SoCs, the R2000 series. Offering four different SKUs ranging from 2C/4T up to 4C/8T, which is double the core count of the previous generation, AMD claims that the R2000 series features up to 81% higher CPU and graphics performance.

The AMD Ryzen Embedded R2000 Series compared to the previous generation (R1000), now has double the core count, with a generational swing from Zen to the more efficient and higher performance Zen+ cores. All four SKUs announced feature a configurable TDP, with the top SKU, the R2544, operating at between 35 and 54 W. More in line with the lower power target of these SoCs, the bottom SKU (R2312) has a configurable TDP of between 12 and 35 W.

AMD Ryzen Embedded R2000-Series APUs
AnandTech Core/
Freq (MHz)
1T Boost
Freq (MHz)
R2544 4 8 3350 3700 DDR4-3200 2 MB 4 MB 8 35-54 October 22
R2514 4 8 2100 3700 DDR4-2667 2 MB 4 MB 8 12-35 October 22
R2314 4 4 2100 3500 DDR4-2667 2 MB 4 MB 6 12-35 In Production
R2312 2 4 2700 3500 DDR4-2400 1 MB 2 MB 3 12-25 In Production

Another element delivering additional performance compared to the previous generation is better iGPU performance via increasing the number of Radeon Vega graphics compute units. The entry R2312 SKU comes with 3 CUs, while the R2544 comes with 8 CUs. The Ryzen Embedded R2000 series also benefits from newer video decode and display processor blocks, bringing support for decoding 4Kp60 video and driving up to three 4K displays.

AMD has also equipped the SoCs with 16 PCIe Gen 3 lanes on the R2314, R2514, and R2544 SKUs, while the R2312 gets eight. The R2000 series has support for two SATA 3.0 ports, up to six USB ports with a mixture of USB 3.2 G2 and USB 2.0, and OS support for Microsoft Windows 11/10 and Linux Ubuntu LTS. 

The application benefits of AMD's Ryzen Embedded R2000 series include the commercial and industrial sectors, as well as robotics, with a planned product availability of up to 10 years, ensuring a long life cycle for each product. Some of AMD's Ryzen Embedded R2000's Ecosystem partners include Advantech for its gaming and gambling machines, as well as DFI, IBASE, and Sapphire, so these new SoCs are already being adopted and planned into existing thin-client and small form factor systems.

AMD states that the Ryzen Embedded R2544 (4C/8T) and R2514 (4C/8T) will be available sometime in October 22, while the R2314 and R2312 SKUs are currently in production.

Source: AMD

Lenovo ThinkStation P360 Ultra Melds Desktop Alder Lake and NVIDIA Professional Graphics

Over the last decade or so, advancements in CPU and GPU architectures have combined extremely well with the relentless march of Moore's Law on the silicon front. Together, these have resulted in hand-held devices that have more computing power than huge and power-hungry machines from the turn of the century. On the desktop front, small form-factor (SFF) machines are now becoming a viable option for demanding professional use-cases. CAD, modeling, and simulation capabilities that required big iron servers or massive tower workstations just a few years back are now capable of being served by compact systems.

Workstation notebooks integrating top-end mobile CPUs and professional graphics solutions from AMD (FirePro) or NVIDIA (Quadro Mobile / RTX Professional) have been around since the early 2000s. The advent of UCFF and SFF PCs has slowly brought these notebook platforms to the desktop. Zotac was one of the early players in this market, and continues to introduce new products in the Zotac ZBOX Q Series. The company has two distinct lines - one with a notebook CPU and a professional mobile GPU (with a 2.65L volume), and another with a workstation CPU (Xeons up to 80W) and a professional mobile GPU (with a 5.85L volume).

Today, Lenovo is also entering the SFF workstation PC market with its ThinkStation P360 Ultra models. The company already has tiny workstations that do not include support for discrete GPUs, and that is fixed in the new Ultra systems. Featuring desktop Alder Lake with an Intel W680 chipset (allowing for ECC RAM option), these systems also optionally support discrete graphics cards - up to NVIDIA RTX A5000 Mobile. Four SODIMM slots allow for up to 128GB of ECC or non-ECC DDR5-4000 memory. Two PCIe Gen 4 x4 M.2 slots and a SATA III port behind a 2.5" drive slot are also available, with RAID possibility for the M.2 SSDs. Depending on the choice of CPU and GPU, Lenovo plans to equip the system with one of three 89% efficiency external power adapters - 170W, 230W, or 300W.

The front panel has a USB 3.2 Gen 2 Type-A and two Thunderbolt 4 Type-C ports, as well as a combo audio jack. The vanilla iGPU version has four USB 3.2 Gen 2 Type-A ports, three DisplayPort 1.4 ports, and two RJ-45 LAN ports (1x 2.5 GbE, and 1x 1 GbE). On the WLAN front, the non-vPro option is the Wi-Fi 6 AX201, while the vPro one is the Wi-Fi 6E AX211. In addition to the PCIe 4.0 x16 expansion slot for the discrete GPU, the system also includes support for a PCIe 3.0 x4 card such as the Intel I350-T2 dual-port Gigabit Ethernet Adapter.

With dimensions of 87mm x 223mm x 202mm, the whole package comes in at 3.92L. In order to cram the functionality into such a chassis, Lenovo has employed a custom dual-sided motherboard with a unique cooling solution, as indicated in the teardown picture above. A blower fan is placed above the two M.2 slots to ensure that thte PCIe Gen 4 M.2 SSDs can operate without any thermal issues.

As is usual for Lenovo's business / professional-oriented PCs, these systems are tested to military grade requirements and come with ISV certifications fro companies such as Autodesk, ANSYS, Dassault, PTC, Siemens, etc. Pricing starts at $1299 for the base model without a discrete GPU.

The ThinkStation P360 Ultra joins Lenovo's already-announced P360 Tiny and the P360 Tower models. The P360 Tiny doesn't support powerful discrete GPUs (capable of handling workstation workloads), while the P360 Tower goes overboard with support for 3.5" drives, and up to four PCIe expansion cards, along with a 750W PSU. Most workstation use-cases can get by without all those bells and whistles. Additional options for the end consumer are always welcome, and that is where the P360 Ultra comes into play.

TSMC to Expand Capacity for Mature and Specialty Nodes by 50%

TSMC this afternoon has disclosed that it will expand its production capacity for mature and specialized nodes by about 50% by 2025. The plan includes building numerous new fabs in Taiwan, Japan, and China. The move will further intensify competition between TSMC and such contract makers of chips as GlobalFoundries, UMC, and SMIC.

When we talk about silicon lithography here at AnandTech, we mostly cover leading-edge nodes used produce advanced CPUs, GPUs, and mobile SoCs, as these are devices that drive progress forward. But there are hundreds of device types that are made on mature or specialized process technologies that are used alongside those sophisticated processors, or power emerging smart devices that have a significant impact on our daily lives and have gained importance in the recent years. The demand for various computing and smart devices in the recent years has exploded by so much that this has provoked a global chip supply crisis, which in turn has impacted automotive, consumer electronics, PC, and numerous adjacent industries.

Modern smartphones, smart home appliances, and PCs already use dozens of chips and sensors, and the number (and complexity) of these chips is only increasing. These parts use more advanced specialty nodes, which is one of the reason why companies like TSMC will have to expand their production capacities of otherwise "old" nodes to meet growing demand in the coming years.

But there is another market that is about to explode: smart cars. Cars already use hundreds of chips, and semiconductor content is growing for vehicles. There are estimates that several years down the road the number of chips per car will be about 1,500 units – and someone will have to make them. Which is why TSMC rivals GlobalFoundries and SMIC have been increasing investments in new capacities in the last couple of years.

TSMC, which has among the largest CapEx budgets in the semiconductor industries (which is challenged only by Samsung) has in recent years been relatively quiet about their mature and specialty node production plans. But at their 2022 TSMC Technology Symposium, the company outlined its plans formally.

The company is investing in four new facilities for mature and specialty nodes:

  • Fab 23 Phase 1 in Kumamoto, Japan. This semiconductor fabrication facility will make chips using TSMC's N12, N16, N22, and N28 nodes and will have a production capacity of up to 45,000 300-mm wafer starts per month.
  • Fab 14 Phase 8 in Tainan, Taiwan.
  • Fab 22 Phase 2 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  • Fab 16 Phase 1B in Nanjing, China. TSMC currently makes chips on its N28 in China, though the new phase was once rumored to be capable of making chips using more advanced nodes.

Increasing mature/specialized capacity by 50% over the next three years is a big shift for the company, and one that will improve TSMC's competitive positions on the market. What is perhaps more important is that the company's specialty nodes are largely based on its common nodes, which allows at least some companies to re-use IP they once developed for compute or RF for a new application. 

"[Our] specialty technology is quite unique as it is based on common technology platform  [logic technology platform], so our unique strategy is to allow our customer to share or reuse many of the [common] IP," said Kevin Zhang, senior vice president of business development at TSMC. "For example, you have RF capability, you build that RF on a common logic platform, but later you find 'hey someone need a so-called ULV feature to support an IoT product application.' You want to build that on a common platform so you can allow different product lines to be able to share IP across the board, this is very important for our customers so we do want to provide a integrated platform to address the market needs of customer from product perspective.' 

There are other advantages too. For example, TSMC's N6RF allows chip designers to combine high-performance logic with RF, which enables them to build products such as modems and other, more unique solutions. Many companies are already familiar with TSMC's N6 logic node, so now they have an opportunity to add RF connectivity to something that benefits from high performance. GlobalFoundries has a similar approach, but since the U.S.-based foundry does not have anything comparable to TSMC's N6, TSMC has an indisputable advantage here.

With its common platform approach for mature nodes as well as specialized technologies, and 50% more capacity, TSMC will be able to offer the world more chips for smart and connected devices in the coming years. Furthermore, it will also benefit TSMC by significantly increasing the company's revenues from mature and specialized nodes, as well as increasing pressure on their rivals.

TSMC Unveils N2 Process Node: Nanosheet-based GAAFETs Bring Significant Benefits In 2025

At its 2022 Technology Symposium, TSMC formally unveiled its N2 (2 nm class) fabrication technology, which is slated to go into production some time in 2025 and will be TSMC's first node to use their nanosheet-based gate-all-around field-effect transistors (GAAFETs). The new node will enable chip designers to significantly reduce the power consumption of their products, but the speed and transistor density improvements seem considerably less tangible.

TSMC's N2 is a brand-new platform that extensively uses EUV lithography and introduces GAAFETs (which TSMC calls nanosheet transistors) as well as backside power delivery. The new gate-all-around transistor structure promises well-published advantages, such as greatly reduced leakage current (now that the gates are around all four sides of the channel) as well as ability to adjust channel width to increase performance or lower power consumption. As for the backside power rail, it is generally designed to enable better power delivery to transistors, offering a solution to the problem of increasing resistances in the back-end-of-line (BEOL). The new power delivery is slated to increase transistor performance and lower power consumption.

From feature set standpoint, TSMC's N2 looks like a very promising technology. As for actual numbers, TSMC promises that N2 will allow chip designers to increase performance by 10% to 15% at the same power and transistor count, or reduce power consumption at the same frequency and complexity by 25% ~ 30%, all the while increasing chip density by over 1.1-fold when compared to N3E node.

Advertised PPA Improvements of New Process Technologies
Data announced during conference calls, events, press briefings and press releases
Power -30% -25-30% -34% -25-30%
Performance +15% +10-15% +18% +10-15%
Chip Density* ? ? ~1.3X >1.1X
Q2 2022 H2 2022 Q2/Q3 2023 H2 2025

*Chip density published by TSMC reflects 'mixed' chip density consisting of 50% logic, 30% SRAM, and 20% analog. 

Versus N3E, the performance improvements and power reductions enabled by TSMC's N2 node are in line with what the foundry's new nodes typically bring in. But the so-called chip density improvements (which should reflect transistor density gains) are just a little over 10%, which is not particularly inspiring, especially considering that N3E already offers a slightly lower transistor density when compared to vanilla N3. Keeping in mind that SRAM and analog circuits barely scale these days, mediocre improvements in transistor density of actual chips should probably be expected these days. However, a chip density improvement of 10% in about three years is certainly not great news for GPUs and other chips that live or die based on rapidly increasing their transistor counts. 

Bearing in mind that by the time TSMC's N2 enters production the company will also have the density-optimized N3S node, it would appear that the foundry will have two process technologies based on different types of transistors yet offering very similar transistor densities, something that has never happened before.

As usual, TSMC will offer their N2 node with various features and knobs to allow chip designers to optimize for things like mobile and high-performance computing designs (note that TSMC calls HPC everything that is not mobile, automotive or specialty. which includes everything from a low-power laptop CPU to a high-end compute GPU aimed at supercomputers). Also, platform offerings include something that TSMC calls 'chiplet integration', which probably means that TSMC enable its customers to easily integrate N2 chips into multi-chiplet packages made using various nodes. Since transistor density scaling is slowing down and new process technologies are getting more expensive to use, multi-chiplet packages are going to become more common in the coming years as developers will be using them to optimize their designs and costs.

TSMC expects to start risk production of chips using its N2 fabrication process sometimes in the second half of 2024, which means that the technology should be available for high volume manufacturing (HVM) of commercial products in the second half of 2025. But, considering the length of modern semiconductor production cycles, it's likely more pragmatic to expect the first N2 chips to become available either very late in 2025 or 2026, if everything goes as planned.

TSMC Readies Five 3nm Process Technologies, Adds FinFlex For Design Flexibility

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. on Thursday kicked off its 2022 TSMC Technology Symposium, where the company traditionally shares it process technology roadmaps as well as its future expansion plans. One of the key things that TSMC is announcing today are its leading-edge nodes that belong to its N3 (3 nm class) and N2 (2nm class) families that will be used to make advanced CPUs, GPUs, and SoCs in the coming years.

N3: Five Nodes Over Next Three Years

As fabrication processes get more complex, their pathfinding, research, and development times get stretched out as well, so we no longer see a brand-new node emerging every two years from TSMC and other foundries. With N3, TSMC's new node introduction cadence is going to expand to around 2.5 years, whereas with N2, it will stretch to around three years. 

This means that TSMC will need to offer enhanced versions of N3 in order to meet the needs of its customers who are still looking for a performance per watt improvement as well as transistor density bump every year or so. Another reason why TSMC and its customers need multiple versions of N3 is because the foundry's N2 relies on all-new gate-all-around field-effect transistors (GAA FETs) implemented using nanosheets, which is expected to come with higher costs, new design methodologies, new IP, and many other changes. While developers of bleeding-edge chips will be quick to jump to N2, many of TSMC's more rank & file customers will stick to various N3 technologies for years to come.

At its TSMC Technology Symposium 2022, the foundry talked about four N3-derived fabrication processes (for a total of five 3 nm-class nodes) — N3E, N3P, N3S, and N3X — set to be introduced over the coming years. These N3 variants are slated to deliver improved process windows, higher performance, increased transistor densities, and augmented voltages for ultra-high-performance applications. All these technologies will support FinFlex, a TSMC "secret sauce" feature that greatly enhances their design flexibility and allows chip designers to precisely optimize performance, power consumption, and costs. 

Advertised PPA Improvements of New Process Technologies
Data announced during conference calls, events, press briefings and press releases
Power lower -22% - ? ? -25-30% -34%
Performance higher +11% +6% +15%
or more
+10-15% +18%
Logic Area

Reduction* %

Logic Density*











2022 2023 H2 2022 2023 2023 H2 2022 Q2/Q3 2023

*Note that TSMC only started to publish transistor density enhancements for analog, logic, and SRAM separately around 2020. Some of the numbers still reflect 'mixed' density consisting of 50% logic, 30% SRAM, and 20% analog. 

N3 and N3E: On Track for HVM

TSMC's first 3 nm-class node is called N3 and this one is on track to start high volume manufacturing (HVM) in the second half of this year. Actual chips are set to be delivered to customers in early 2023.This technology is mostly aimed at early adopters (read: Apple and the like) who can invest in leading-edge designs and would benefit from the performance, power, area (PPA) advantages offered by leading-edge nodes. But as it's tailored for particular types of applications, N3 has a relatively narrow process window (a range of parameters that produce a defined result), which may not be suitable for all applications in terms of yields.

This is when N3E comes into play. The new technology enhances performance, lowers power, and increases the process window, which results in higher yields. But the trade-off is that the node features a slightly reduced logic density. When compared to N5, N3E will offer a 34% reduction in power consumption (at the same speed and complexity) or an 18% performance improvement (at the same power and complexity), and will increase logic transistor density by 1.6x. 

It is noteworthy that, based on data from TSMC, N3E will offer higher clockspeeds than even N4X (due in 2023). However the latter will also support ultra-high drive currents and voltages of above 1.2V, at which point it will be able to offer unbeatable performance, but with very high power consumption. 

In general, N3E looks to be a more versatile node than N3, which is why it is not surprising that TSMC has more '3nm tape outs' at this point than it had with its 5 nm-class node at a similar point of its development.

Risk production of chips using N3E is set to start in the coming weeks (i.e., in Q2 or Q3 2022) with HVM set for mid-2023 (again, TSMC does not disclose whether we are talking about Q2 or Q3). So expect commercial N3E chips to be available in late 2023 or early 2024.

N3P, N3S, and N3X: Performance, Density, Voltages

N3's improvements do not stop with N3E. TSMC is set to bring out N3P, a performance-enhanced version of its fabrication process, as well as N3S, density-enhancing flavor of this node, some time around 2024. Unfortunately, TSMC is not currently disclosing what improvements these variants will offer compared to baseline N3. In fact, at its Technology Symposium 2022, TSMC did not even show N3S in its roadmap and it only got mentioned by Kevin Zhang in a conversation. Bearing all this in mind, it is really not a good business to try guessing characteristics of N3S.

Finally, for those customers who need ultra-high performance no matter power consumption and costs, TSMC will offer N3X, which is essentially an ideological successor of N4X. Again, TSMC is not revealing details about this node other than that it will support high drive currents and voltages. We might speculate that N4X could use backside power delivery, but since we are talking about a FinFET-based node and TSMC only going to implement backside power rail in nanosheet-based N2, we are not sure this is the case. Nonetheless, TSMC probably has a number of aces up its sleeve when it comes to voltage increases and performance enhancements.

FinFlex: N3's Secret Sauce

Speaking of enhancements, we should definitely mention TSMC's secret sauce for N3: FinFlex technology. In short, FinFlex allows chip designers to precisely tailor their building blocks for higher performance, higher density, and lower power.

Update 6/17: The initial version of the story incorrectly referred standard cells and blocks as transistors, which has been corrected.

When using a FinFET-based node, chip designers can choose between different libraries using different standard cells. A standard cell is the most basic building block that performs a Boolean logic or storage function and consists of a group of transistors and interconnects. From math point of view, the same function can be performed (with the same result) using a standard cell of different configurations. But from manufacturability and operation point of view, different standard cell configurations are characterized by different performance, power consumption, and area. When developers need to minimize die size and save power at the cost of performance, they use small standard cells. But when they need to maximize performance at the trade-off of die size and higher power, they use large standard cells.

Currently, chip designers have to stick to one library/standard cells either for the whole chip or the whole block in a SoC design. For example, CPU cores can be implemented using 3-2 fin blocks to make them run faster, or 2-1 fin standard cells to reduce their power consumption and footprint. This is a fair tradeoff, but it's not ideal for all cases, especially when we are talking about 3 nm-class nodes that will be more expensive to use than existing technologies.

For N3, TSMC's FinFlex technology will allow chip designers to mix and match different kinds of standard cells within one block to precisely tailor performance, power consumption, and area. For complex structures like CPU cores, such optimizations give a lot of opportunities to increase core performance while still optimizing die sizes. So, we are eager to see how SoC designers will be able to take advantage of FinFlex in the looming N3 era.

FinFlex is not a substitute for node specialization (performance, density, voltages) as process technologies have greater differences than the ibraries or transistor structures within a single process technology, but FinFlex looks to be a good way to optimize performance, power, and costs for TSMC's N3 node. Ultimately, this technology will bring the flexibility of FinFET-based nodes a little closer to that of nanosheet/GAAFET-based nodes, which are slated to offer adjustable channel widths to get higher performance or reduce power consumption.


Like TSMC's N7 and N5, N3 will be another family of long-lasting nodes for the world's largest contrast maker of semiconductors. Especially with the jump to nanosheet-based GAAFETs coming up at 2nm for TSMC, the 3nm family will be the final family of "classic" leading-edge FinFET nodes from the firm, and one that a lot of customers will stick to for several years (or more). Which, in turn, is why TSMC is prepping multiple versions of N3 tailored for different applications – as well as FinFlex technology to give chip designers some additional flexibility with their designs.

The first N3 chips are set to enter production in the coming months and arrive to the market in early 2023. Meanwhile, TSMC will keep producing semiconductors using its N3 nodes long after it introduces its N2 process technology in 2025.

The ASUS ROG Maximus Z690 Hero Motherboard Review: A Solid Option For Alder Lake

Over the last six months since Intel launched its 12th Gen Core series of processors, we've looked at several Alder Lake desktop CPUs and seen how competitive they are from top to bottom - not just in performance but price too. To harness the power of Alder Lake, however, there are many options in terms of Z690 motherboards, and today we're taking a look at one of ASUS's more premium models, the ROG Maximus Z690 Hero.

They say hard times don't create heroes, but ASUS has done for many years with good results. Equipped with plenty of top-tier features such as Thunderbolt 4, Intel's Wi-Fi 6E CNVi, and support for up to DDR5-6400 memory, it has enough to make it a solid choice for gamers and enthusiasts. It's time to see if the Z690 Hero option stacks up against the competition and if it can sparkle in a very competitive LGA1700 market.

Intel 4 Process Node In Detail: 2x Density Scaling, 20% Improved Performance

Taking place this week is the IEEE’s annual VLSI Symposium, one of the industry’s major events for disclosing and discussing new chip manufacturing techniques. One of the most anticipated presentations scheduled this year is from Intel, who is at the show to outline the physical and performance characteristics of their upcoming Intel 4 process, which will be used for products set to be released in 2023. The development of the Intel 4 process represents a critical milestone for Intel, as it’s the first Intel process to incorporate EUV, and it’s the first process to move past their troubled 10nm node – making it Intel’s first chance to get back on track to re-attaining fab supremacy.

Intel’s scheduled to deliver their Intel 4 presentation on Tuesday, in a talk/paper entitled “Intel 4 CMOS Technology Featuring Advanced FinFET Transistors optimized for High Density and High-Performance Computing”. But this morning, ahead of the show, they re publishing the paper and all of its relevant figures, giving us our first look at what kind of geometries Intel is attaining, as well as some more information about the materials being used.

AMD's Desktop CPU Roadmap: 2024 Brings Zen 5-based "Granite Ridge"

As part of AMD's Financial Analyst Day 2022, it has provided us with a look at the company's desktop client CPU roadmap as we advance towards 2024. As we already know, AMD's latest 5 nm chips based on its Ryzen 7000 family are expected to launch in Fall 2022 (later this year), but the big news is that AMD has confirmed their Zen 5 architecture will be coming to client desktops sometime before the end of 2024 as AMD's "Granite Ridge" chips.

At Computex 2022, during AMD's Keynote presented by CEO Dr. Lisa Su, AMD unveiled its Zen 4 core architecture using TSMC's 5 nm process node. Despite not announcing specific SKUs during this event, AMD did unveil some expected performance metrics that we could expect to see with the release of Ryzen 7000 for desktop. This includes 1 MB per core L2 cache, which is double the L2 cache per core with Zen 3, and a 15%+ uplift in single-threaded performance. 

AMD 3D V-Cache Coming to Ryzen 7000 and Beyond

One key thing to note with AMD's updated client CPU roadmap, it highlights some more on what to expect with its Zen 4 core, which is built on TSMC's 5 nm node. AMD is expecting 8-10% IPC gains over Zen 3, on top of their previously announced clockspeed gains. As a result, the company is expecting single-threaded performance to improve by at least 15%, and by even more for multi-threaded workloads.

Meanwhile AMD's 3D V-Cache packaging technology will also come to client desktop Zen 4. AMD is holding any further information close to their chest, but their current roadmap makes it clear that we should, at a minimum, expect a successor to the the Ryzen 7 5800X3D.

AMD Zen 5 For Client Desktop: Granite Ridge

The updated AMD client CPU roadmap until 2024 also gives us a time frame of when we can expect its next-generation Zen 5 cores. Built on what AMD is terming an "advanced node" (so either 4 nm or 3 nm), Zen 5 for client desktops will be Granite Ridge.

At two years out, AMD isn't offering any further details than what they've said about the overall Zen 5 architecture thus far. So while we know that Zen 5 will involve a significant reworking of AMD's CPU architecture with a focus on the front end and issue width, AMD isn't sharing anything about the Granite Ridge family or related platform in particular. So sockets, chipsets, etc are all up in the air.

But for now, AMD's full focus is on the Zen 4-based Ryzen 7000 family. Set to launch this fall, 2022 should end on a high note for the company.

Updated AMD Notebook Roadmap: Zen 4 on 4nm in 2023, Zen 5 By End of 2024

As we've come to expect during AMD's Financial Analyst Day (FAD), we usually get small announcements about big things coming in the future. This includes updated product roadmaps for different segments such as desktop, server, graphics, and mobile. In AMD's latest notebook roadmap stretching out to 2024, AMD has unveiled that its mobile Zen 4 core (Phoenix Point) will be available sometime in 2023 and Zen 5 for mobile on an unspecified node which is expected to land sometime by the end of 2024.

The updated AMD Notebook roadmap through to 2024 highlights two already available mobile processors, the Zen 3-based Ryzen 5000 series with Vega integrated graphics and the latest Ryzen 6000 based on Zen 3+ and with the newest RDNA 2 mobile graphics capabilities. But there's more that is due to be announced starting in 2023.

From The Rembrandt, Rises a Phoenix: Zen 4 Mobile AKA Phoenix Point

What's new and upcoming on the updated AMD mobile roadmap is the successor to Rembrandt (Ryzen 6000), which AMD has codenamed Phoenix Point. AMD Phoenix Point will be based on AMD's upcoming Zen 4 core architecture and will be built using TSMC's 4 nm process node. According to the roadmap, AMD's Zen 4 Phoenix Point mobile processors will use Artificial Intelligence Engine (AIE) and AMD's upcoming and next-generation RDNA 3 integrated graphics.

Also Announced: Zen 5 Mobile Codenamed Strix Point

Also on the AMD notebook roadmap is the announcement of its Zen 5-based platform on an unspecified manufacturing process, codenamed Strix Point. While details on Strix Point are minimal, AMD does state that Strix Point will use AMD's unreleased RDNA 3+ graphics technology, which will likely be a refreshed and perhaps more performance per watt efficient RDNA 3 variation.

Also listed within the slide of the roadmap with Phoenix Point and Strix Point is an Artificial Intelligence Engine (AIE), which is more commonly found in mobile phones. The AI Engine or AIE will allow AMD to spec its products based on tiling with an adaptive interconnect. Still, it hasn't unveiled much more about how it intends to incorporate AIE into its notebook portfolio. We know that it is part of AMD's XDNA Adaptive Architecture IP, which comes from its acquisition of Xilinx.

We will likely learn more about AMD's Phoenix Point based on Zen 4 in the coming future, as a release date sometime in 2023 is expected. As for Strix Point, which will be using its unannounced Zen 5 microarchitecture, we're likely to hear more about this next year sometime.

AMD Announces Genoa-X: 4th Gen EPYC with Up to 96 Zen 4 Cores and 1GB L3 V-Cache

As AMD makes strides in snatching market share with its high-performance x86 processor designs in the server market, it has announced some of its upcoming 4th generations EPYC families expected sometime in 2023. Focusing on its technical computing and database-focused family codenamed Genoa-X, it is the direct successor to AMD's Milan-X EPYC line-up which launches, later on, this year in Q4. 

Essentially the V-Cache enabled version of AMD's Genoa EPYC CPUs, Genoa-X will include up to 96 Zen 4 cores and 1GB (or more) of L3 cache per socket. We know that Genoa-X will be using the latest SP5 socket (LGA6096), and will feature twelve memory channels, just like the regular Genoa platform which is set to debut in Q4 2022.

This means that the new SP5 platform will support Genoa, Genoa-X, Bergamo, and Siena, although it is unclear if users upgrading from Genoa to Genoa-X will need a new LGA6096 motherboard or if it will be enabled with a firmware update.

As the successor to Milan-X, Genoa-X is designed to slot into the same user segment, with AMD pitching it at customers who have workloads that uniquely benefit from oversized L3 caches – that is, workloads that can predominantly fit in those caches. That includes technical computing workloads (CAM, etc) as well as databases.

We expect to hear more about Genoa-X and any specific features it will bring to the 4th Gen EPYC platform in the future. AMD Genoa-X is scheduled to be released sometime in 2023.

AMD Unveils Siena, A Lower Cost EPYC Family With Up to 64 Zen 4 Cores

As part of AMD's Financial Analyst Day 2022, AMD unveiled an updated server CPU roadmap up to and including 2024. Nestled within AMD's latest server roadmap, it highlighted the Siena series, much like the Genoa (due Q4 2022), Bergamo (Due 1H 2023), and the Siena family from its 4th gen EPYC series are expected to land sometime in 2023. While roadmaps only give a glimpse of what is expected, they are used internally to plot and plan specific product groups and keep them on track for release.

The AMD Siena family of 4th generation EYPC processors are slightly different from Genoa and Genoa-X because Siena is primarily designed for the Edge and Telecommunication industries. Siena will feature up to 64 Zen 4 cores, and AMD states it will be a lower-cost platform in comparison to Genoa, Genoa-X, and Bergamo, all of which will be based on AMD's Zen 4 core architecture and TSMC's 5 nm and the even more highly optimized 4 nm process node.

AMD's Siena family of EPYC 7004 products will likely be compatible with the SP5 platform that launches alongside Genoa in Q4 2022. SP5 features support twelve channels of DDR5 memory and PCIe 5.0 lanes, but it is unclear how AMD intends to package its Siena family in terms of die layout or whether it will feature a cut-down feature set to make it more affordable. 

We expect AMD to unveil more about Siena soon, and AMD states that Siena will be coming sometime in 2023.

AMD Updated EPYC Roadmap: 5th Gen EPYC "Turin" Announced, Coming by End of 2024

As part of AMD's Financial Analysts Day 2022, AMD has provided updates to its Server CPU roadmap going into 2024. The biggest announcement is that AMD is already planning for the (next) next-gen core for its successful EPYC family, the 5th generation EPYC series, which has been assigned the codenamed Turin. Some key announcements include various segmentations of its expected EPYC 7004 portfolio, including Genoa, Bergamo, Genoa-X, and Siena.

From the launch of AMD's EPYC 2nd generation products Codenamed Rome back in August 2019, the release of the updated EPYC 7003 processors, including both Milan and Milan-X, the next generation of EPYC 7004 codenamed Genoa is expected to launch in Q4 2022. Genoa will feature up to 96 Zen 4 cores based on TSMC's 5 nm process node, with the new SP5 platform bringing support for 12-channel memory, PCIe 5.0, and support for memory expansion with Compute Express Link (CXL).

While Genoa will benefit from up to 96 Zen 4 cores and will be released towards the end of the year in Q4, AMD also announced Bergamo, which will be available in the first half of 2023, with Genoa-X and Siena also being available sometime in 2023. AMD's Genoa-X will feature up to 96 Zen 4 cores based on TSMC's 5 nm manufacturing node, with up to 1 GB of L3 cache per socket. AMD Siena will be predominantly targeted as a lower-cost platform and will feature up to 64 Zen 4 cores, with an optimized performance per watt, making it more affordable for the Edge and Telco markets.

AMD Unveils 5th Gen EPYC (Turin)

Perhaps the most significant announcement on AMD's Server CPU Roadmap going into 2024 is the plan to bring its 5th generation of EPYC processors codenamed 'Turin' to market sometime before the end of 2024. As expected, AMD hasn't shed many details on the Turin family of processors, but we expect it to be named the EPYC 7005 platform to follow its current EPYC name scheme.

We know that the Zen 5 cores will be based on a 4 nm mode (likely TSMC but not confirmed) and a 3 nm version, as highlighted in AMD's CPU Core Roadmap through to 2024. AMD also states there will be three variants of the Zen 5 core in its CPU roadmap, including Zen 5, Zen 5 with 3D V-Cache, and Zen 5c.

From the latest roadmap highlighting AMD's EPYC products, we know that AMD's 5th generation of EPYC processors is expected to launch sometime before the end of 2024.

AMD: Combining CDNA 3 and Zen 4 for MI300 Data Center APU in 2023

Alongside their Zen CPU architecture and RDNA client GPU architecture updates, AMD this afternoon is also updating their roadmap for their CDNA server GPU architecture and related Instinct products. And while CPUs and client GPUs are arguably on a rather straightforward path for the next two years, AMD intends to shake up its server GPU offerings in a big way.

Let’s start first with AMD’s server GPU architectural roadmap. Following AMD’s current CDNA 2 architecture, which is being used in the MI200 series Instinct Accelerators, will be CDNA 3. And unlike AMD’s other roadmaps, the company isn’t offering a two-year view here. Instead, the server GPU roadmap only goes out one year – to 2023 – with AMD’s next server GPU architecture set to launch next year.

Our first look at CDNA 3 comes with quite a bit of detail. With a 2023 launch AMD isn’t holding back on information quite as much as they do elsewhere. As a result, they’re divulging information on everything from the architecture to some basic information about one of the products CDNA 3 will go in to – a data center APU made of CPU and GPU chiplets.

AMD’s 2022-2024 Client GPU Roadmap: RDNA 3 This Year, RDNA 4 Lands in 2024

Among the slew of announcements from AMD today around their 2022 Financial Analyst Day, the company offering an update to their client GPU (RDNA) roadmap. Like the company’s Zen CPU architecture roadmap, AMD has been keeping a 2 year horizon here, essentially showing what’s out, what’s about to come out, and what’s going to be coming out in a year or two. Meaning that today’s update gives us our first glace at what will follow RDNA 3, which itself was announced back in 2020.

With AMD riding a wave of success with their current RDNA 2 architecture products (the Radeon RX 6000 family), the company is looking to keep up that momentum as they shift towards the launch of products based on their forthcoming RDNA 3 architecture.  And while today’s roadmap update from AMD is a high-level one, it none the less offers us the most detailed look yet into what AMD has in store for their Radeon products later this year.

AMD RDNA 3/Navi 3X GPU Update: 50% Better Perf-Per-Watt, Using Chiplets For First Time

Continuing our coverage of AMD's 2022 Financial Analyst day, we have the matter of AMD's forthcoming RDNA 3 GPU architecture and the Navi 3X GPUs that will be built upon it. Up until now, AMD has been fairly quiet about what to expect with RDNA 3, but as RDNA 2 approaches its second birthday and the first RDNA 3 products are slated to launch this year, AMD is offering some of the first significant details on the GPU architecture.

First and foremost, let’s talk about performance. The Navi 3X family, to be built on a 5nm process (TSMC’s, no doubt) is targeting a greater-than 50% performance-per-watt uplift versus RDNA 2. This is a significant and similar uplift as to AMD saw moving from RDNA (1) to RDNA 2. And while such a claim from AMD would have seemed ostentatious two years ago, RDNA 2 has given AMD’s GPU teams a significant amount of renewed credibility.

Thankfully for AMD, unlike the 1-to-2 transition, they don’t have to find a way to come up with a 50% uplift based on architecture and DVFS optimizations alone. The 5nm process means that Navi 3X is getting a full node’s improvement from the TSMC N7/N6 based Navi 2X GPU family. As a result, AMD will see a significant efficiency improvement from that alone.

But with that said, these days a single node jump on its own can’t deliver a 50% perf-per-watt improvement (RIP Dennard scaling). So there are several architecture improvements planned for RDNA 3. This includes the next generation of AMD’s on-die Infinity Cache, and what AMD is terming an optimized graphics pipeline. According to the company, the GPU compute unit (CU) is also being rearchitected, though to what degree remains to be seen.

But the biggest news of all on this front is that, confirming a year’s worth of rumors and several patent applications, AMD will be using chiplets with RDNA 3. To what degree, AMD isn’t saying, but the implication is that at least one GPU tier (as we know it) is moving from a monolithic GPU to a chiplet-style design, using multiple smaller chips.

Chiplets are in some respects the holy grail of GPU construction, because they give GPU designers options for scaling up GPUs past today’s die size (reticle) and yield limits. That said, it’s also a holy grail because the immense amount of data that must be passed between different parts of a GPU (on the order of terabytes per second) is very hard to do – and very necessary to do if you want a multi-chip GPU to be able to present itself as a single device. We’ve seen Apple tackle the task by essentially bridging two M1 SoCs together, but it’s never been done with a high-performance GPU before.

Notably, AMD calls this an “advanced” chiplet design. That moniker tends to get thrown around when a chip is being packaged using some kind of advanced, high-density interconnect such as EMIB, which differentiates it from simpler designs such as Zen 2/3 chiplets, which merely route their signals through the organic packaging without any enhanced technologies. So while we’re eagerly awaiting further details of what AMD is doing here, it wouldn’t at all be surprising to find out that AMD is using a form of Local Si Interconnect (LSI) technology (such as the Elevated Fanout Bridge used for the MI200 family of accelerators) to directly and closely bridge two RNDA 3 chiplets.

At this point, AMD isn’t going into any more details on the architecture or Navi 3X GPUs. Today is a teaser and roadmap update for the analyst market, not an announcement of what we can only assume will be the Radeon RX 7000 family of video cards. None the less, with the first RDNA 3 products slated to launch later this year, a more formal announcement cannot be too far away. So we’re looking forward to hearing more about what stands to be a major shake-up in the nature of GPU design and fabrication.

AMD Zen Architecture Roadmap: Zen 5 in 2024 With All-New Microarchitecture

Today is AMD’s Financial Analyst Day, the company’s semi-annual, analyst-focused gathering. While the primary purpose of the event is for AMD to reach out to investors, analysts, and others to demonstrate the performance of the company and why they should continue to invest in the company, FAD has also become AMD’s de-facto product roadmap event. After all, how can you wisely invest in AMD if you don’t know what’s coming next?

As a result, the half-day series of presentations is full of small nuggets of information about products and plans across the company. Everything here is high-level – don’t expect AMD to hand out the Zen 4 transistor floorplan – but it’s easily our best look at AMD’s product plans for the next couple of years.

Kicking off FAD 2022 with what’s always AMD’s most interesting update is the Zen architecture roadmap. The cornerstone of AMD’s recovery and resurgence into a competitive and capable player in the x86 processor space, the Zen architecture is the basis of everything from AMD’s smallest embedded CPUs to their largest enterprise chips. So what’s coming down the pipe over the next couple of years is a very big deal for AMD, and the industry as a whole.

AMD Zen 4 Update: 8% to 10% IPC Uplift, 25% More Perf-Per-Watt, V-Cache Chips Coming

As part of today’s AMD’s 2022 Financial Analyst Day, the company is offering a short, high-level update on their forthcoming Zen 4 CPU architecture. This information is being divulged as part of the company’s larger Zen architecture roadmap, which today is being extended to announce Zen 5 for 2024.

The biggest news here is that AMD is, for the first time, disclosing their IPC expectations for the new architecture. Addressing some post-Computex questions around IPC expectations, AMD is revealing that they expect Zen 4 to offer an 8-10% IPC uplift over Zen 3. The initial Computex announcement and demo seemed to imply that most of AMD’s performance gains were from clockspeed improvements, so AMD is working to respond to that without showing too much of their hand months out from the product launches.

This makes up a good chunk of AMD’s overall >15% expected improvement in single-threaded performance, which was previously disclosed at Computex and essentially remains unchanged. That said, AMD is strongly emphasizing the “greater than” aspect of that performance estimate. At this point AMD can’t get overly specific since they haven’t locked down final clockspeeds, but as we’ve seen with their Computex demos, peak clockspeeds of 5.5GHz (or more) are currently on the table for Zen 4.

AMD is also talking a bit more about power and efficiency expectations today. At this point, AMD is projecting a >25% increase in performance-per-watt with Zen 4 over Zen 3 (based on desktop 16C chips running CineBench). Meanwhile the overall performance improvement stands at >35%, no doubt taking advantage of both the greater performance of the architecture per-thread, and AMD’s previously disclosed higher TDPs (which are especially handy for uncorking more performance in MT workloads). And yes, these are terrible graphs.

Finally, AMD is confirming that there will be V-Cache equipped Zen 4 SKUs within their processor lineup. No specific SKUs are being announced today, but AMD is reiterating that V-Cache was not just a one-off experiment for the company, and that they will be employing the die stacked L3 cache on some Zen 4 chips as well.

Supermicro SYS-E100-12T-H Review: Fanless Tiger Lake for Embedded Applications

Compact passively-cooled systems find application in a wide variety of market segments including industrial automation, IoT gateways, digital signage, etc. These are meant to be deployed for 24x7 operation in challenging environmental conditions. Supermicro has a number of systems targeting this market under the Embedded/IoT category. Their SuperServer E100 product line makes use of motherboards in the 3.5" SBC form-factor. In particular, the E100-12T lineup makes use of embedded Tiger Lake-U SoCs to create powerful, yet compact and fanless systems. Today's review takes a look at the top-end of this line - the SYS-E100-12T-H based on the Intel Core i7-1185GRE embedded processor.

Apple Announces M2 SoC: Apple Silicon for Macs Updated For 2022

Though primarily a software-focused event, Apple’s WWDC keynotes are often stage for an interesting hardware announcement or two as well, and this year Apple did not disappoint. At the company’s biggest Mac-related keynote of the year, Apple unveiled the M2, their second-generation Apple Silicon SoC for the Mac (and iPad) platform. Touting modest performance gains over the original M1 SoC of around 18% for multithreaded CPU workloads and 35% in peak GPU workloads, the M2 is Apple’s first chance to iterate on their Mac SoC to incorporate updated technologies, as well as to refresh their lower-tier laptops in the face of recent updates from their competitors.

With the king of the M1 SoCs, M1 Ultra, not even 3 months behind them, Apple hasn’t wasted any time in preparing their second generation of Apple Silicon SoCs. To that end, the company has prepared what is the first (and undoubtedly not the last) of a new family of SoCs with the Apple Silicon M2. Designed to replace the M1 within Apple’s product lineup, the M2 SoC is being initially rolled out in refreshes of the 13-inch MacBook Pro, as well as the MacBook Air – which is getting a pretty hefty redesign of its own in the process.

The launch of the M2 also gives us our first real glimpse into how Apple is going to handle updates within the Apple Silicon ecosystem. With the iPhone family, Apple has kept to a yearly cadence for A-series SoC updates; conversely, the traditional PC ecosystem is on something closer to a 2-year cadence as of late. M2 seems to split this down the middle, coming about a year and a half after the M1 – though in terms of architecture it looks closer to a yearly A-series SoC update.

The Apple WWDC 2022 Keynote Live Blog (Starts at 10am PT/17:00 UTC)

As we round the corner after Computex and transition into June, it's time once more for Apple's annual World Wide Developers Conference. As always, Apple kicks off WWDC with their big keynote event, which though aimed first and foremost at developers, is also used as a venue to announce new products and ecosystem strategies. The keynote starts at 10am Pacific (17:00 UTC) today, and AnandTech will be offering live blog coverage of Apple's event.

With WWDC going virtual once again this year, we're expecting another rapid-fire, two-hour run through of Apple's ecosystem. WWDC keynotes have historically covered everything from macOS and iOS to individual Apple applications and more. On the hardware side of matters, in previous years we've seen things like the official announcement of Apple's shift from x86 to Apple Silicon; and while 2021 was light on hardware, one never quite knows what Apple has in store. Apple has yet to launch an Arm-based Mac Pro, so there's still some big surprises left in their bag, and of course there's always the chance of the periodic product refresh.

So join us at 10am Pacific to see just what Apple is working on for this year and beyond.

Destination 30 TB: HDD Vendors Plan Different Routes to Hit Storage Milestone in 2023

In the recent months all three hard drive manufacturers — Seagate, Toshiba, and Western Digital — and some of their partners have outlined plans to ship 30TB HDDs already in 2023 ~ 2024 timeframe. Apparently, all of these companies plan to use different technologies to get to this milestone.

Demand for high capacity nearline hard drives has been increasing for years and is not going to stop, as more data is generated each and every day. But nearline HDD users not only want their drives in large quantities, but they want a rapid increase in capacity as well, in a bid to keep the number of drives (and therefore the number of servers and power consumption of datacenters) in check. But capacity increases have been slowing down in the recent years, mainly because of slow roll out of energy-assisted magnetic recording (EAMR) technologies. 

NZXT Announce N7 and N5 Z690 Motherboards for Intel 12th Gen Core Processors

NZXT has announced a pair of new motherboards designed for Intel's 12th Gen Core processors: the N7 Z690 and N5 Z690. The N7 Z690 positions itself as the premium model of the pairing and comes with armor covering the vast majority of the PCB, Wi-Fi 6E, and support for memory speeds up to DDR4-4800. The N5 Z690 opts for a less aggressive approach at a more affordable price but still comes with Wi-Fi 6E and supports all of Intel's Alder Lake Core processors.

Starting with the most premium of NZXT's new motherboard pairing for Intel's 12th Gen family of processors, the NZXT N7 Z690 follows a similar design to previous iterations of its N series models, including the N7 Z490 which we previously reviewed. As with previous N series models from NZXT, these are designed around its range of chassis, such as the H series models, for a seamless look and design. Perhaps the most prominent feature of the N7 Z690 is that it has armor plating covering practically all of the PCB for a cleaner and sleeker look.

There's space underneath the sleek armor for up to three PCIe 4.0 x4 M.2 drives and four SATA ports for conventional HDDs and optical media drives. NZXT includes one full-length PCIe 5.0 x16 slot, with the second full-length slot operating at PCIe 4.0 x4 and the bottom full-length slot operating at PCIe 3.0 x4. Inbetween the full-length slots are two PCIe 3.0 x1 slots, while the N7 Z690 includes support for DDR4 memory at speeds up to DDR4-4800, with four slots supporting up to 128 GB in total. 

The NZXT N7 Z690 is available in both black and white and includes a mid-range feature controller set with a Realtek RTL8125BG 2.5 GbE controller, an Intel AX210 Wi-Fi 6E CNVi, and a Realtek ALC1220 HD audio codec.

The NZXT N5 Z690 is the more affordable of the pair and doesn't include all of the armor of the N7; instead, opting for a more barebone look that users are accustomed to with entry-level motherboards. It does have the same networking configuration as the N7 (RTL8125BG 2.5 GbE and AX210 Wi-Fi 6E), but it uses a cheaper and lower grade Realtek ALC897 HD audio codec, as well as support for DDR4 memroy up to DDR4-5000 speeds.

It has the same PCIe configuration as the N7 with one full-length PCIe 5.0 x16, one full-length PCIe 4.0 x4, one full-length PCIe 3.0 x4, and two PCIe 3.0 x1 slots. The N5 Z690 even includes four PCIe 4.0 x2 M.2 slots which is one more than the more expensive N7 Z690 model.

The NZXT N7 Z690 is available in black or white and can be purchased now directly from NZXT for $300. Without all the armor and a lower grade HD audio codec, the NZXT N5 Z690 is also available in black or white and can be bought from NZXT directly for $240.

Source: NZXT

Intel Unveils Rialto Bridge: Second-Gen Xe-HPC Accelerator to Succeed Ponte Vecchio

With ISC High Performance 2022 taking place this week in Hamburg, Germany, Intel is using the first in-person version of the event in 3 years to offer an update to the state of their high performance/supercomputer silicon plans. The big news out of the show this year is that Intel is naming the successor to the Ponte Vecchio accelerator, which the company is now disclosing as Rialto Bridge.

Previously appearing on Intel’s roadmaps as “Ponte Vecchio Next”, Intel’s GPU teams have been pipelining the development of Ponte’s successor even as the first large installation of Ponte itself (the Aurora Supercomputer) is still being stood up. As part of the company’s 3 year (ish) roadmap that leads to CPUs and accelerators converging with the Falcon Shores XPU, Rialto Bridge is the part that will, if you’ll pardon the pun, bridge the gap between Ponte and Falcon, offering an evolution of Ponte’s design that’s making use of newer technologies and manufacturing processes.

Intel Showcases Sapphire Rapids Plus HBM Xeon Performance at ISC 2022

Alongside today’s disclosure of the Rialto Bridge accelerator, Intel is also using this week’s ISC event to deliver a brief update on Sapphire Rapids, the company’s next-generation Xeon CPU which is shipping later this year. While Intel has been beating the drum for their forthcoming, 4th Generation Xeon Scalable chip for a while, we have yet to hear anything of significance about its expected performance – particularly in the HPC space. So ahead of its formal launch a bit later this year, Intel is finally talking a bit about the expected performance of the HBM-equipped version of the chip, which is aimed in particular at the HPC/supercomputing crowd.

Intel’s first tiled Xeon processor, Sapphire Rapids is also Intel’s first CPU to offer optional on-chip HBM memory, which is being dubbed Sapphire Rapids Plus HBM. The addition of 64GB of HBM2e makes it a fairly complex and expensive chip, but also one with access to far more memory bandwidth than any x86 CPU before it. As a result, the chip is of particular interest to a subset of the high-performance compute community, as it offers an alternative route for workloads that aren’t suitable for GPUs, but still need access to vast amounts of memory bandwidth.

As part of their ISC presentation today, Intel is releasing two slides with performance figures for the HBM version of Sapphire Rapids (Sapphire Rapids Plus HBM). The idea here is to show off the combination of architecture improvements – and in particular, the dedicated accelerator blocks – combined with using 64GB of HBM2e memory to keep those blocks well fed. The pre-production processors are being compared to Intel’s Xeon Platinum 8380 (Ice Lake-SP) chips.

Bearing in mind that these are going to be cherry-picked performance figures, Intel is seeing anywhere between a 2x speed-up in things like the WRF weather forecasting model, to over a 3x improvement for the CloverLeaf Euler equation solver. Both of which are somewhat narrow use cases, but important ones for the HPC market segment.

Sapphire Rapids Plus HBM is due to be released alongside the rest of the Sapphire Rapids family later this year. According to Intel’s current roadmaps, it is due for a successor in the 2023 timeframe, before the entire HBM-equipped Xeon lineup is due to be rolled into the Falcon Shores XPU in 2024.

AMD Corrects Socket AM5 Power Specifications: 170W TDP and 230W PPT

At Computex 2022, the CEO of AMD, Dr. Lisa Sui, unveiled its Ryzen 7000 series of processors, as well as the associated AM5 platform. But while discussing specific details about its new platform for Zen 4 and beyond, AMD inadvertently ended up creating a conflux of confusion around the AM5 platform by quoting different power figures to different groups. Ultimately, at different points AMD was quoting 170 Watts as both the highest nominal TDP supported by the platform, as well as the Power Package Tracking (PPT) rating, which is the absolute highest amount of power a chip can draw under load. It goes without saying that these two claims shouldn't both be right, and a correction was needed.

As first reported by the Tom's Hardware crew, AMD has published a statement addressing the confusion, and proving the correct values. In short, the 170 Watt TDP was correct. Meanwhile the PPT value is actually 230 Watts – which at 1.35x the TDP rating, is typical for AMD's Ryzen processors.

AMD's full statement is below:

AMD would like to issue a correction to the socket power and TDP limits of the upcoming AMD Socket AM5. AMD Socket AM5 supports up to a 170W TDP with a PPT of up to 230W. TDP*1.35 is the standard calculation for TDP v. PPT for AMD sockets in the “Zen” era, and the new 170W TDP group is no exception (170*1.35=229.5). 

This new TDP group will enable considerably more compute performance for high core count CPUs in heavy compute workloads, which will sit alongside the 65W and 105W TDP groups that Ryzen is known for today. AMD takes great pride in providing the enthusiast community with transparent and forthright product capabilities, and we want to take this opportunity to apologize for our error and any subsequent confusion we may have caused on this topic.

The overall increase in power specification figures for the AM5 platform was not unexpected – part of the benefit of the move to LGA sockets is additional pins for power delivery – but this finally settles the matter of just how much power AMD's new socket and platform are designed to deliver. Motherboard vendors will no doubt go (well) past this on their high-end boards, of course, but 170W/230W will be the baseline for any motherboard that wants to officially support high-end AM5 chips.

CPU power consumption has been on the rise for the past several years, as we're now well into the Dark Silicon era. While an individual CPU core still only draws a modest amount of power – on the order of 20W to 30W for a high-performance core – the total power requirement quickly balloons for high-end processors, which pack upwards of 16 cores. As a result, power delivery limits are typically the constraining factor for heavily multi-threaded workloads, as CPUs have to back down on clockspeeds in order to stay within their power envelopes. Increasing platform power limits, in turn, offers more headroom for keeping more cores clocked higher more often.

Though it should be noted that AMD's clarifications today are for the AM5 socket, not the initial Ryzen 7000 series chips that will use it. AMD doesn't necessarily have to tap into the full TDP of the socket right away – though for the aforementioned MT performance reasons, there's good reason to. So officially, we still don't know what the TDPs of the high-end Ryzen 7000 processors will be; but unofficially, it wouldn't be surprising to see the top chips approach 170 Watts.

Finally, it would seem that we should expect to see the Ryzen 7000 family hit that full TDP out of the gate. According to a comment from an AMD spokesperson on Reddit, the top TDP of the Ryzen 7000 series will indeed be 170 Watts, with PPTs reaching 230 Watts.

Computex 2022: TeamGroup Announces T-Force Delta RGB DDR5-6600 CL34 and DDR5-6000 CL30 Memory

Memory vendor TeamGroup has announced two new T-Force Delta RGB DDR5 memory kits during Computex 2022, being held in Taipei, Taiwan. This includes a high-frequency kit clocked to DDR5-6600 with a latency of CL34, as well as a low-latency kit operating at DDR5-6000 CL30. Both will be available in black or white and come with RGB LEDs.

Intel was the first company to introduce DDR5 memory to the desktop market in November 2021 with its 12th Gen Core series of processors. During its keynote at Computex, AMD announced that its latest Ryzen 7000 processors, due in the fall, will also support DDR5 memory, among many other interesting features. We did test how well DDR5 memory scales on Intel's 12th Gen Alder Lake platform, and there is merit to using both high-frequency and low latencies to maximize performance.

TeamGroup intends to add two new speed grades of its T-Force Delta RGB DDR5 memory, one with DDR5-6600 CL34 specifications and one with DDR5-6000 CL30. Both variants will be available in 32 GB kits (2 x 16 GB), with options including a striking white or subtle black heatsink. Both color schemes include an RGB-enabled lightbar with a 120° angle with smart RGB customization control. TeamGroup states that it uses carefully selected memory ICs, but they don't specify which manufacturer's DRAM the kits will be using.

The TeamGroup T-Force Delta RGB DDR5-6600 CL34 and DDR5-6000 CL30 are expected to hit retail shelves in July, but we currently don't have any details on pricing.

Source: TeamGroup

ASML High-NA Development Update: Coming to Fabs in 2024 - 2025

It took the semiconductor industry over a decade to prep everything needed for production of chips using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. It looks like it is going to take a lot less to reach the next level — EUV with High-NA.

Higher Resolution Needed

Nowadays the most advanced chips are made on 5/4-nm-class process using EUV lithography ASML's Twinscan NXE:3400C (and similar) systems that feature a 0.33 numerical aperture (NA) optics, which provides a 13 nm resolution. This resolution is good enough for a single-pattern approach at 7 nm/6 nm nodes with 36 nm ~ 38 nm pitches and at 5nm with 30 nm ~ 32 nm pitches. But as pitches get below 30 nm (at beyond 5 nm nodes) the 13 nm resolution might call for dual lithographic exposure that is going to be used for years to come. 

For post-3nm nodes, ASML and its partners are working on a brand-new EUV tool — the Twinscan EXE:5000-series — featuring a 0.55 NA (High-NA) lens capable of an 8nm resolution, which is projected to avoid multipatterning at 3 nm and beyond. The new High-NA scanners are still in development, they are expected to be extremely complex, very large, and expensive — each of them will cost over $400 million. High-NA will require not only new optics, but a new light source too, and even new fab buildings to accomodate the larger machines, which will require major investments.

But in a bid to keep scaling performance, power, area, and costs (PPAc) of semiconductors, leading makers of logic chips and memory devices are willing to adopt new technologies, and High-NA EUV scanners are crucially important for post 3-nm nodes. As a result, demand for High-NA tools is, well, pretty high. 

10 to 20 High-NA Systems to Be Delivered

Several weeks ago, ASML disclosed that it had received multiple orders in Q1 2022 for its High-NA Twinscan EXE:5200 systems (EUV 0.55 NA) from both logic and DRAM customers. Last week it clarified that it had five orders for pilot High-NA scanners due to be delivered in 2024 and 'over five' orders for subsequent models featuring higher productivity that will be delivered starting from 2025, reports Reuters.

Interestingly, back in 2020 ~ 2021, ASML said that it had has received High-NA commitments from three customers, for a total of up to 12 systems. Keeping in mind that logic makers are usually the first to adopt leading edge tools, it is safe to bet that Intel, Samsung Foundry, and TSMC committed in 2020 ~ 2021 to get pre-production High-NA scanners. Moreover, ASML has already started building the first High-NA system, which will be completed in 2023 and will be used by Imec and ASML customers for research and development purposes.

"On High-NA EUV, we are making good progress and have currently started the integration of the first High-NA system in our new cleanroom in Veldhoven," said Peter Wennink, chief executive of ASML. "We received multiple orders for our EXE:5200 system in Q1. We also received additional EXE:5200 orders this month, April. With these bookings, we now have High-NA orders from three Logic and two Memory customers. The EXE:5200 is ASML's next model High-NA system and will provide the next step for lithography performance and productivity."

ASML's Twinscan EXE:5200 is considerably more complex than regular Twinscan NXE:3400C machines, so it takes longer time to build these tools. The company hopes that it will be able to deliver as many as 20 High-NA systems in mid-term future, which probably means that its customers will have to compete for these machines.

"We are also discussing with our supply chain partners to secure a capacity of around 20 EUV 0.55NA systems in the medium term," said Wennink. 

Intel First to Adopt Pre-Production Tools

So far, the only process technology confirmed to use ASML's High-NA tools is Intel's 18A node and that one was once scheduled to enter high-volume production in 2025, around the time when ASML starts to deliver its production High-NA EUV systems. But recently Intel pulled-in the start of18A production to the second half of 2024 and indicated that it could use ASML's Twinscan NXE:3600D or NXE:3800E for its 18A manufacturing, presumably via multi-patterning.

While Intel's 18A technology would greatly benefit from High-NA EUV tools, it looks like Intel does not necessarily need Twinscan EXE:5200 machines for this node. Usage of multi-patterning for commercial chips means a longer product cycle, lower productivity, higher risks, and potentially lower yields (though the latter is not cast in stone). Yet, it looks like Intel wants its 18A node to arrive as soon as possible, perhaps because it considers it a major tool that will allow it to recapture process technology leadership from TSMC. Consequently, Intel's updated plans are now to phase in High-NA tooling during 18A's lifecycle if the tools are completed on time.

Of course, it remains to be seen whether usage of 0.33 NA EUV scanners for 18A will offer enough productivity for Intel and customers of Intel Foundry Services. But, at least in 2024, Intel is not going to have any choice but to use machines that it has.

Other leading makers of semiconductors — TSMC, Samsung, SK Hynix, and Micron — will also inevitably adopt High-NA EUV for high-volume manufacturing of chips. The only question is when exactly this is when exactly this is set to happen.